This depends on the sound source(s) of interest and the situation. Sound level decreases by 6 dB for each doubling of distance. For example, if a sound source measures 110 dB at 1 meter, then at 2 meters you will measure 104 db, at 4 meters 98 dB etc.
In a completely quiet environment, you would be able to increase the measurement distance until the noise floor of the sound level meter (which is 33 dB) is louder than the sound produced by the sound source of interest.
For a sound source that produces a measured sound level of 110 dB at 1 meter, that would mean it would be measurable from a distance of over 4 kilometers (not taking into account the influence of environmental conditions).
In reality, however, we have to deal with many other factors, such as objects between a sound source of interest and the sound level meter, other nearby sound sources that might be louder than the sound source of interest due to the smaller distance, etc.